I've not been this excited in ages!!! I just learnt of a new method for pairing up my butterflies today known as hand-pairing; a process where two individual insects are coerced to mate via human interaction. The process (and I have watched the video tutorial) seems relatively straightforward and involves gripping both butterflies in either hand and manually aligning the male's mating claspers along the female's ovipositor. As you might expect, the butterflies are sometimes quite indignant at being made to go through this procedure (the male needs to be "pinched" slightly to get his claspers open) but once they have been "connected", so to speak, both insects often calm down and find the process quite agreeable after all. The success rate of breeding is significantly increased which avoids "wasted specimens" fluttering around in captivity without ever reproducing and the other benefit to this is that you get to choose which butterflies to pair up (therefore ensuring that only the strongest, healthiest insects get to add their genetic material to one's breeding stock). Hand pairing, however, is not necessarily suitable for all species. While most moths are quite ambivalent about the procedure (Saturnids are especially cooperative!), not all butterflies are able to reproduce thusly. From what I've read, danaiidae and papilioniidae have been most successfully bred in this way! Fortunately for me, I have got a batch of swallowtail caterpillars on the way to adulthood. I can barely wait to start on them!!!